Abstract: Introduction and aims:
Among various types of cancer, leukaemia is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. Although the current treatment modality has various issues of drug resistance and side effects. Many anticancer drugs currently used clinically have been isolated from plant species. Studies suggested that herbal medicines have a great potential in combating leukaemia. However, the use of therapeutic herbs in developing countries as a curative agent against leukaemia is predominantly associated. Hence, investigation of plant species as a source of experimental therapeutic agents, in treating cancer is currently gaining a lot of importance.
One such naturally available plant extract Melaleuca alternifolia (TTO) which belongs to the family of essential oils is a very good antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoal and anti-inflammatory agent. But currently there is a lot of importance has been given for its anticancer effect. Hence our aim is to evaluate anticancer activity of Melaleuca alternifolia on Leukemia cancer cell line (K562) by MTT assay an in vitro method.
Methodology: Before the start of the study ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional Review Board. The cytotoxicity checked for Leukemia cancer (K562) cell line. The cell lines were procured from NCCS Pune, India. 1. MTT solution preparation (stock solution): 5 mg in 1 ml of PBS. 2. Cell culture : The cell lines were maintained in 96 wells micro titer plate containing MEM media supplemented with 10% heat inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS), containing 5% of mixture of Gentamicin (10ug), Penicillin (100 Units/ ml) and Streptomycin (100µg/ml) in presence of 5% CO2 at 37 ºC for 48-72 hours. 3. Cytotoxicity Assay: In vitro growth inhibition effect of test compound was assessed by calorimetric or spectrophotometric determination of conversion of MTT into Formazan blue by living cells.
Results: The results represent the mean of five readings. The IC50 value of tea tree oil for Leukemia cancer (K562) cell line after 48 hrs was 3.125µg/ml. Spearmans rho’s Correlation showed P value <0.05 indicating there was statistical significant results obtained when TTO was treated with Leukemia cancer (K562) cell line for 48 hrs incubation period.
Conclusion: TTO has a promising anticancer property against Leukemia cancer (K562) cell line with its IC50 value 3.125µg/ml. Hence this TTO with its greater efficacy related to its anticancer activity can be brought to the level of clinical trials in the coming future.