Luffa cylindrical, otherwise known as Sponge gourd is a fibrous plant with fruits containing black seeds. Luffa plantrnis a curcurbit with other members including snake gourd, pumpkins and cucumbers. It grows as a flowering annualrnvine with pollinated flowers developing into cylindrical green fruits filled with seeds in a system of manyrnintertwined cellulose fibres. The fruit is edible especially when young and it contains group of compounds such asrnphenolics, lavonoids, oleanolic acid, ascorbic acid, a-tocopherol, carotenoids, chlorophylls, triterpenoids andrnribosome-inactivating proteins, which makes it highly effective when used for medicinal purpose. Luffa cylindricalrncontains chemical components that have effects on hypersensitivity reactions, serve as immunostimulant, antiinflamatoryrnagent and function in glycosidase activity, inhibit protein synthesis with structural-function relationshiprnof type I RIPs suggesting potentials for antitumour and antiviral activities, and also induce uterine contraction tornhasten child birth (Oxytocics). In this report, the traditional and medicinal uses of Luffa cylindrica were exploredrnand the shortcomings associated with its uses were highlighted and discussed.