Phytochemical Investigation on the Roots of Solanum Incanum, Hadiya Zone,Ethiopia
Habtamu Abebe, Tamene Gebre, Adane Haile (Assistant Professor )
Solanum incanum (Solanaceae)is bushy herb up to 3 m tall, native to Northern and north-eastern Africa including Ethiopia. It is a well known medicinal plant. Throughout tropical Africa a sore throat, angina, stomach-ache, colic, headache, painful menstruation, liver pain and pain caused by onchocerciasis, pleurisy, pneumonia and rheumatism are treated with Solanum incanum. This research project is aimed at isolating, Phytochemical screening and characterizing the chemical constituents of Solanum incanum, Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia. The root of Solanum incanum (650 g) was macerated and extracted with 1.5 L 80% methanol at room temperature for 48 hours with occasional shaking. This process was repeated twice at room temperature, filtered and concentrated using Rota vapor to give yellowish extracts and partitioned was done with n-hexane, ethylacetate and butanol. Then the resulting extract was filtered using filter paper (What man No 1.5, what man Ltd., England). The methanol extract was evaporated to dryness in vacuum using Rota-vapour at 40 oC to yield 17 g of crude extract. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, glycosides, phytosterols, saponins, triterpens, tannins and steroids as a major class of compounds. Phytochemical investigation on the methanol extract of the roots of this plant resulted in the isolation of one steroid derivative SIE2. The structure of compound SIE2 was determined by means of spectroscopic methods (IR, 1H, 13C and 2D NMR, UV and DEPT).