Phytochemical and Pharmacological investigation of Calotropis gigantea
Md. Ashrafudoulla, Nazneen Ahmed Luna, Fahmida Hoque Jyothy, Taslima Khatun, Tabia Fatima Rafa, Salma Parvin, Md. Siddiqul Islam
Calotropis gigantea belonging to the family Asclepiadaceae has been investigated for the presence of its secondary metabolites and evaluation of biological activities of the crude extracts with special emphasis to the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, thrombolytic activity and antimicrobial activity. Approximately 850 gm of the powder of whole plant of Calotropis gigantea was soaked with ethanol and kept for 7 days and then filtered. For the evaporation of the ethanol, the obtained filtrate was kept in an open air. The concentrated ethanol extract was then stored for further uses. The preliminary phytochemical studies are represented by the testing of different chemical groups which are present in the extract. The chemical group tests are performed by 10% (w/v) solution of Calotropis gigantea extract in ethanol. Alkaloid group, reducing sugar group and tannin group was founded in the group 1. In Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, after 18hrs later the LC50 and LC90 of n-hexane extract of the Calotropis gigantea were 106.09µg/ml and 248.54µg/ml, after 21hrs later 77.37 µg/ml and 225.02µg/ml and after 24hrs later 31.75 µg/ml and 175.17µg/ml. After 18hrs later the LC50 and LC90 of CCl4 extract were 80.76 µg/ml and 216.35µg/ml, after 21 hrs later 41.44 µg/ml and 173.23µg/ml, after 24hrs later 6.841 µg/ml and 135.37µg/ml. After 18hrs later the LC50 and LC90 of crude extract were 43.92µg/ml and 136.02 µg/ml, after 21hrs later 20.59 µg/ml and 128.00 µg/ml and after 24hrs later 2.08 µg/ml and 122.35 µg/ml respectively. The percentages found in thrombolytic test are 41.81%, 22.47%, 51.60%, 42.74% and standard: 93.29%. So, in comparison with standard Calotropis gigantea can be further used as a mild thrombolytic agent. The extract of the plant also showed activity against a wide variety of microorganism tests. All the activities were compared by measuring the zone of inhibition with the standard antibiotic. Based on the findings of Antimicrobial, thrombolytic and toxicological activity, it can be said from the obtained results that the plant can be used as traditional medicine.