Plants used against snakebite by tribal people of Koraput district of Odisha, India
Saswat S Kumar, Bandana Padhan, Sharat K Palita and Debabrata Panda
The aim of the present study is to provide a comprehensive picture of the medicinal plants with anti-snake venom activity that is used by the tribal people of Koraput district, Odisha. Information on ethno-medicinal plants were collected from eight indigenous communities viz. Paraja, Bhumia, Gadaba, Bhatra, Kondha, Gouda, Mali and Paika in eighteen villages under six community development blocks (Boipariguda, Kundra, Koraput, Jeypore, Similiguda and Nandapur) of Koraput district. During the survey a total of 38 plants species belonging to 36 genera and 29 families were identified as being used for treatment of snakebite. The plants were enumerated alphabetically according to their scientific name, habit, local name, family, parts used and mode of preparation of medicine. Maximum number of medicinal plants used for snakebite was recorded under the family Apocynaceae and 68% of plants were used orally or internally, where as 32% of plants were externally applied to the affected area. The most commonly used species for treatment of snakebite was Rauvolfia serpentina with highest use value among tribals followed by Curcuma longa, Achyranthes aspera and Mimosa pudica. The plant with very less use value reported from study area were Rauvolfia tetraphylla, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Andrographis paniculata, Asparagus racemosus, Musa paradisiaca, Nyctanthes arbortristis and Piper longum. Further work is suggested to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of these plant extracts against snake venom.