Tabasum Fatima, Omar Bashir, Bazila Naseer and Syed Zameer Hussain
Taraxacumofficinale (dandelion), a member of the Asteraceae family, commonly found in the temperate zone of the Northern hemisphere, is a herb that grows to a height of about 12 inches, producing spatula-like leaves and yellow flowers that bloom year round. Dandelion is used in many traditional and modern herbal medical systems, as particularly has been documented in Asia, Europe, and North America. Dandelion is grown commercially in the United States and Europe, the leaves and roots are used in herbal medicine. It iscommonly used as a food. Sesquiterpene lactones impart a bitter taste to the plant, which is especially notable in the leaf but also in the root particularly when spring-harvested. Preclinical research on dandelion has revealed numerous properties, including its actions as an inflammation modulator, diuretic, digestive stimulant, insulin stimulant, demulcent, prebiotic, immunomodulator, antiangiogenic, and anti-neoplastic. Dandelion root and leaf could protect against oxidative stress linked atherosclerosis and decrease the atherogenic index. Dandelion offers a compelling profile of bioactive components with potential anti-diabetic properties. Taraxacumofficinale has been used in folk medicine in the treatment of hepatic and several diseases such as breast and uterus cancers. Dandelion extract has a potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase (RT) activity.Several flavonoids including caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, luteolin, and luteolin 7-glucoside have been isolated from the dandelion. Taraxacumofficinale leaves are rich in fiber, potassium, iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A and C, the B vitamins thiamine and riboflavin, and protein. The aim of this review is to evaluate the properties of dandelion with exploration of its diverse biological activities.