Analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Cyperus rotundus L. rhizomes
Vijender Singh, Mohammed Ali, Archana Negi and Shahnaz Sultana
The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae), a native to India, are used to treat amenorrhoea, bronchitis, dyspepsia, stomach disorders, fever, malaria, cough, vomiting, renal and vesical calculi, skin diseases, wounds, dysmenorrhoea, deficient lactation, loss of memory, insect bites, nausea, dysuria, infertility, cervical cancer and menstrual disorders. Hydrodistillation of the rhizomes yielded a pale yellowish essential oils (0.6%). GC-MS analysis of the oil showed the presence of sesquiterpenes β-selinene (23.7%), α-cyperone (8.1 %), caryophyllene (4.1 %) and α-selinene (3.5 %), monoterpenes anethole (16.2 %) and cuminaldehyde (9.2 %), fatty acids viz., arachidic ((9.4 %), stearic (8.7 %) and palmitic (2.2 %) acids and n-pentane (5.8%) as the main constituents. The significant antimicrobial activities were observed with the essential oil of the rhizomes against Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. A benzene extract of the rhizomes exhibited potent antibacterial effects against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. flexneri and antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. niger. The chloroform extract of the rhizomes elicited marked antibacterial activity against B. pumilus only.