A review on regulatory roles of micro RNA and micro RNA based therapeutics for diabetics mellitus
Firnus Haile, Mequanente Dagnaw and Nega Berhane
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of chronic metabolic disorders characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis that results in hyperglycemia due to increased insulin resistance in insulin sensitive tissues (liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, etc.) and/or disturbance in insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. The causes of diabetes mellitus are various, including both genetic and environmental factors and it is a major cause of complication such as renal failure and stroke. About 50% of diabetic patients have end-stage renal disease (ESRD), requiring painful and costly dialysis. Current treatments for diabetes cannot efﬁciently control glycaemic levels, resulting in episodes of hyper- and hypoglycaemia, which increase the possibility of developing secondary complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. In the search for more-targeted molecular therapies, microRNAs implicated in insulin secretion and diabetic complications have recently attracted attention. MiRNAs are non-coding RNA molecules which are about 22 nucleotides in size inhibit the expression of a target messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule by binding to its 3'-UTR through complimentary base pairing. The process of miRNA biogenesis occurs in both nucleus and cytoplasm.
There is heightened interest in evaluating miRNAs as a potential biomarker for various diseases especially because of improvement in the technologies for miRNA detection in vitro and in vivo. These include quantitative PCR, microarrays, and high throughput deep sequencing. MiRNAs are readily detectable in plasma and urine and their stability in these biofluids make them ideal candidate biomarker for noninvasive much needed early detection of diabetic complication.
Because of the role of miRNAs in regulating several path ways, miRNA should the promise of being able to yield a new class of therapeutics.