The identification of weeds and effect of herbicides in rapeseed-mustard: A review
Ramakant Singh Sidar
The identification of weeds and type of weed flora, magnitude and duration of weed infestation competition by weeds at initial stages is a major limiting factor to its productivity of rapeseed-mustard. In the view of above facts, as used herbicides, fights against the weeds in the agriculture are very toxic to soil biota. To some extent, these herbicides are unrestrainedly used by farmers without considering the long or short term effects in soil medium. It is evident that most of these herbicides may cause the reduction of sensitive populations of certain groups of biota in soil medium. It is believe that in cases where these herbicides are used to treat soils, they are considered harmful to nematode and other biological organisms. Studies on this aspect are important because weed identification and herbicides effects are the common prey of many terrestrial vertebrate species such as birds and small mammals, and thus they play a key role in the biomagnifications process of several soil pollutants. It is now emphasized that, whereas higher concentrations of a pollutant can easily be assessed with the mortality test, contaminated soils with lower pollutant concentrations require more sensitive test methods such as reproduction test in their risk assessment. The aim of this paper was to provide the weed flora information with effects of herbicides of soil biological community.