Geomythology has revealed that the ancient Greeks were aware of the importance of hygiene, and for this reason changed the flow of rivers, drained lakes, and built dams.
Excavations in Asia, Egypte and Greece revealed plant seeds. The first mention of the term medicine is attributed to Agamemnon. The drug-poison-antidote citations in the Homeric era revealed pharmacological, toxicological and herbal applications, e.g. Circes’ psychotropic herbs and preparations and the use of copper and sulphur as disinfectant. The effect of opium on the central nervous system is evident in the Odyssey. In Minoan Crete, the capsules of the Papaver somniferum L. appear on the statuette of the Poppy Goddess. Hippocrates contributed the evolution of European Medicine and Pharmacy and abandoned theocratic theories. Galen produced drugs from medicinal plants. Despite the progress of chemistry and the industrialization of drugs, herbal medicines are still promoted by companies and the public for self-medication at high rates.