Comparative analysis of phytochemicals and fatty acids from lemon peel and lemongrass essential oils by GC-FID technique
Ijeoma Akunna Duru and Christian Ebere Enyoh
In this study, the concentrations of fatty acids and phytochemicals present in the essential oils extracted from Citrus limon peel and Cymbopogon citrates were studied. The essential oils were extracted and then characterized quantitatively using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) technique. The results showed that the essential oil from both lemon peel and lemongrass contained lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, α-linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid. The essential oil from C. limon peel showed higher concentrations for lauric acid (76.461 mg/g), myristic acid (32.792 mg/g), and stearic acid (110.410 mg/g) compared to C. citrates (14.507, 20.490, and 60.182 mg/g respectively). The lemongrass essential oil showed a higher concentration of palmitic acid (72.194 mg/g) than the lemon peel (31.349 mg/g). The distributions of unsaturated fatty acids in C. limon peel essential oils were α-linoleic acid (49 %) > oleic acid (36 %) > linoleic acid (13 %) > arachidonic acid (2 %) > eicosapentaenoic acid. A similar trend was showed by C. citrates essential oil except that oleic acid was not detected. A total of 20 and 18 different phytochemical compounds were identified in the C. limon peel, and C. citrates essential oils. Among the phytochemicals, spartein was not detected in the lemon peel oil, while quinine, kaempferol, and oxalate were absent in lemongrass oil. Anthocyanin (27 %), quinine (11 %), and phenol (10 %) were the most significant phytochemicals in the peel oil while sapogenin (17 %), catechin (16 %), and phenol (15 %) were the most prominent phytochemicals in the lemongrass oil. The essential oil from these plants can be a source of fatty acids and phytochemicals with important medicinal roles in man and animals.
Ijeoma Akunna Duru, Christian Ebere Enyoh. Comparative analysis of phytochemicals and fatty acids from lemon peel and lemongrass essential oils by GC-FID technique. J Med Plants Stud 2020;8(5):178-182.