Pharmacological justification for the ethnomedicinal use of stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum Cham. (Family: Bignoniaceae) for wound healing effects
Florence C Nwinyi, Paul Abdu, Shehu NA Saidu, Joseph Omamegbe and Adamu Mohammed
The stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum Cham (Family; Bignoniaceae) is used traditionally for the treatment of wounds, ulcers, gastritis, bronchitis and other inflammatory and pain-related health conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the plant extract for wound healing effects. The stem bark was successively macerated in 80% v/v methanol to obtain the extract used for the evaluation. The aqueous-methanol extract of S. Kunthianum was analysed for phytochemical constituents. Its acute toxicity profile was determined in rats. Its effects on wound healing were tested using excision and incision wound models. The results revealed that saponins, terpenes, tannins and steroids were present in the extract. The estimated oral Median Lethal Dose (LD50) of the extract in rats was ≥ 5,000 mg/kg. S. Kunthianum extract (200 - 400 mg/kg p.o) caused significant reduction of wound area. The excision wound contraction (%) in rats showed that S. Kunthianum extract (200 mg/kg p.o) was most effective when compared with the negative control and all other treatment groups. S. Kunthianum extract (200 mg/kg p.o) had the shortest epithelialization period of 14 days. The extract (400 mg/kg p.o) and Vitamin C (50 mg/rat/day p.o) had epithelialization period of 16 days while S. Kunthianum (100 mg/kg p.o) and the negative control had epithelialization period of 19 days. The extract (200 mg/kg p.o) had the shortest Median Wound Closure Time (WC50) of 4.2 days while the negative control and the extract (100 mg/kg p.o) had the longest Median Wound Closure Time (WC50) of 6.1 days and 7.1 days respectively. Incision wound studies also revealed that S. Kunthianum (100, 200,400 mg/kg p.o) showed a progressive rate of wound repair with increasing doses of the extract. However, there was a dose-dependent decreases in skin-breaking strength with values of 560.0 g, 540.0 g and 470.0 g respectively. The results corroborated the ethno-medicinal claims and have given the scientific justification for the use of S. kunthianum stem bark extract for wound healing. S. kunthianum stem bark extract therefore has the potential to be developed as wound healing agent.
Florence C Nwinyi, Paul Abdu, Shehu NA Saidu, Joseph Omamegbe, Adamu Mohammed. Pharmacological justification for the ethnomedicinal use of stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum Cham. (Family: Bignoniaceae) for wound healing effects. J Med Plants Stud 2021;9(3):19-27.