Phytochemical analysis of six anti-venom medicinal plants
Ekele Jiata Ugwah
This present investigation was conducted to identify and screen the most common medicinal plants used to treat snake bites in Ankpa local government area of Kogi state, Nigeria. After an ethnobotanical survey, only the roots of six medicinal plants were analysed for their qualitative and quantitative phytochemical properties. Roots were pulverised and extracted using methanol solvent. Alkaloids were investigated using Mayer and Dragndorff test; Tannins - Ferric-Chloride test; Total Phenol - Dennis test; Glycosides - Fehling A and B test; Saponins - Frothing test; Flavonoids - NaOH-HCl test; and quantitative constituents were identified using spectrophotometric method. The phytochemical screening indicated the existence of different classes of secondary metabolites, specifically alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, total phenols and glycosides, at different levels. Statistical analysis was investigated by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and the means were distingushed according to Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% probability level. Alkaloid contents obtained were 0.5mg/g, 0.8mg/g, 0.8mg/g, 0.5mg/g, 0.6mg/g, 2.2mg/g of the extract; Flavonoids - 20.8mg/g, 42.2mg/g, 30.9mg/g, 20.7mg/g, 30.5mg/g, 23.6mg/g of the extract; Saponins - 16.5mg/g, 23.1mg/g, 29.6mg/g, 18.8mg/g, 28.8mg/g, 20.7mg/g of the extract; Tannins - 22.8mg/g, 32.7mg/g, 34.4mg/g, 10.6mg/g, 28.8mg/g, 30.2mg/g of the extract; Total phenols - 710.4mg/g, 704.2mg/g, 715.6mg/g, 719.6mg/g, 719.7mg/g, 718.1mg/g of the extract for the six medicinal plants Annona senegalensis, Khaya senegalensis, Uvaria chamae, Lophira lanceolata, Phyllanthus muellerianus and Securidaca longipedunculata respectively. The results of the study revealed the presence of valuable bioactive compounds with medicinal properties in the aqueous and organic solvent extracts of these plants. Thus, supporting their use in traditional medicine for treating various ailments, such as snakebites.