Phytochemical constituents and medicinal applications of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. in the Bhadrak region of Odisha, India
Manoj Kumar Kar and Taranisen Panda
Rauvolfia tetraphylla L., a shrub belonging to the Apocynaceae family, is recognized for its growing importance in both traditional and modern medicine due to its rich assortment of phytochemicals. This study comprehensively examines the qualitative and quantitative attributes of bioactive compounds, encompassing tannin, phenol, alkaloids, saponins, and flavonoids, extracted from the roots of R. tetraphylla L. Additionally, it explores the indigenous utilization of this plant. Root samples were collected from three distinct villages (Dobal, Angeipal, and Palikiri) in the Dhamnagar block of Bhadrak district, Odisha, India, and standard procedures were followed for phytochemical assessment. The methanolic extract consistently demonstrated higher values when compared to the aqueous extract across all collected samples from the different villages. Phenol content exhibited variation, ranging from 12.62 to 17.39 mg/g, with the highest concentration (17.39 mg/g) observed in Angeipal village. Similarly, flavonoid content ranged from 28.1 to 217.3 mg/g, with the greatest amount detected in Dobal village (28.1 mg/g). Alkaloid content spanned from 11.24 to 18.42 mg/g, with the highest level found in Palikiri village (18.42 mg/g). In contrast, saponin and tannin content were consistently lower in all samples in comparison to alkaloids, phenols, and flavonoids. A diverse array of secondary metabolites in R. tetraphylla highlights its potential in treating conditions such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and inflammatory disorders. Furthermore, its potential as an effective antivenom agent against insect bites, scorpion stings, and snakebites is highlighted.