Flag leaf characteristics and relationship with grain yield and grain protein percentage for three cereals
Faisal M. M. Al-Tahir
An experiments were done to investigation the relationship between flag leaf characteristics for three cereal crop (Oat, Wheat and Rice) with grain yield and grain protein. Five cultivars from Oat (Wallaro, Carrolup, Wild oat, Hamel and Genzania), wheat (Ipa- 95, Ipa- 99, Abughraib, Letifia and Iraq) and rice (Anber, yassmen, Mishkab- 1, Mishkab- 2 and Baghdad) were evaluated for three seasons (2011, 2012 and 2013) in AL-Muthanna governorate, Iraq. The experiments were conducted in R.C.B. Design with three replicates.In general the relationship was positive and significant between grain yield and flag leaf area and nigitive between grain protein percentage with flag leaf area and grain yield for oat and rice crops. rnAmong the cultivars of oat, the different for studied characteristics were significant. The highest flag leaf area was observed in Wallaro cv. during 2012 arrived 77.01 cm2 and fresh weight of flag leaf and grain yield for 2011 arrived (0.93 g) and (5.42 t/ ha-1) for characteristics respectively. Wild oat cultivar gave lowest means for most trails expect grain protein which recorded high mean (12.96%) in season of 2013.rnThe studied trails were significantly affected by cultivars of wheat, Ipa-95 gave high flag leaf area arrived 51.23 cm2 in season of 2013, and produced high means in fresh weight of flag leaf, total chlorophyll content and grain yield for 2013 arrived (0.69 g), (54.87 spad) and (5.54 t. ha-1) for characteristics respectively. Letifia cv. gave lowest means for most trails expect grain protein which recorded high mean (13.94 %) in season of 2013.rnThe results showed differences between cultivars of rice during growing season. Meshkab-1 cv. gave high grain yield (4.98 ton/ ha-1) in growing season 2013 while meshkab-2 cv. gave high mean (4.89 ton. ha-1) in season 2012. Yassmen cv. was arrived (4.24 ton. ha1) in season 2011. anber cv. gave highest average of grain protein percentage (12.09%) in the 2013. Yassmen cv. gave high flag leaf area (39.13 cm2) and fresh weight of flag leaf area (0.49 g).